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Established in 1631 and moved to its present site overlooking Shinobazu Pond in 1698, this small but important structure is a copy of the famous Kiyomizu Temple in Kyoto (but on a much less grand scale). It was once part of the Kan'eiji Temple precincts that covered Ueno Hill during the Edo Period. Remarkably, the temple survived both the 1868 battle between Imperial and shogunate forces and bombings during World War II. Today, it's one of Tokyo's oldest temples. It enshrines Kosodate Kannon, protectress of childbearing and child-raising; women hoping to become pregnant come here to ask for the goddess's mercy, and those whose wishes have been fulfilled return to pray for their child's good health and protection. Many leave behind dolls as symbols of their children. Once a year, on September 25, a requiem service is held for all the dolls at the temple, after which they are cremated.