One of Campania's finest monuments, this Roman triumphal arch is in remarkable condition considering its that it is nearly 2,000 years old. A lengthy restoration -- mainly a careful cleaning that took 14 years -- was completed in 2001 and the arch is now visible in all its ancient glory. Built between A.D. 114 and 117 by the Romans to honor Emperor Trajan, it stood at the head of the Via Traiana, what was then a new -- and shorter -- route that led from Benevento to Brindisi, the harbor that was Rome's gateway to the eastern Mediterranean. The carved reliefs celebrate the deeds of Trajan, an illuminated leader who enlarged and strengthened the empire while implementing a generous social policy and carrying out numerous public works. During the Middle Ages, the superb arch was enclosed in the city walls and used as the main gate into town (hence the local name for the arch: Port'Aurea), which contributed to its conservation. The nearby church, Sant'Ilario a Port'Aurea, Via San Pasquale, off the Arco di Traiano (free admission; daily 10am-1pm, in winter also 3-6pm, fall-spring 4-7pm, summer 5-8pm), a Longobard church from the 10th century, houses a permanent exhibit on the arch and on life in Rome under Emperor Trajan.