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Dr. Ignác Semmelweis was a leading Hungarian 19th-century physician who is regarded as the "savior of mothers." Working in maternity wards, he discovered that if doctors simply washed their hands with disinfectant between treating patients, they could reduce cases of so-called "childbed fever," which was common and often fatal in the mid-19th century. This is not one of the first Budapest museums you should visit if you have limited time, but it is a rich and fascinating collection of medical curiosities and relics, including a shrunken head, terrifying-looking medical instruments, an anatomical Venus and other models, an early X-ray machine, anatomical models, and strange medical textbooks. Housed in the old mansion where Semmelweis was born, the museum covers Hungarian medicine and pharmacy, from ancient times to today. There are a few temporary exhibitions organized annually; there cover such themes as the secret history of chastity belts, for example. Dr. Semmelweis's own story is just as interesting as the museum. His theory wasn't widely accepted until much later, and tragically, he died of the disease he was trying to halt.