Where the sheer vastness of the underground city at Derinkuyu makes it an impressive example of a troglodyte complex, its functional nature is more easily appreciated at Kaymakli. On the four levels that have been cleared out since 1964, kitchens, stables, and a winery have been discovered, as well as a chapel with a confessional. The complex, believed to go down 20m (66 ft.), was home to approximately 15,000 people at a time, with air shafts, water wells, and storage spaces capable of supporting the population for several months.
Practical considerations, including protection, survival, and revelry, were given to many facets of living underground. In the face of an attack, keystones were quickly moved into place; these blocked access from the outside and sealed off the various levels. Small holes were carved into the floor and used to communicate with the level above or below, so even when the keystone was pushed back, residents were saved from taking the long way around to pass on messages. The engineering of air shafts that extend beyond the lowest level and exit just below ground level provide an efficient and impressive level of air circulation that even succeeded in emptying the tunnels of the black smoke from the kitchen hearths. Because the same flues were used for communication and for water wells, the shafts did not extend all the way to the surface; this protected the water supply from contamination. Other interesting details are the grape presses that allowed for the grape juice to drain into a stone tank below. Wine was an important consideration in daily life, and probably used in religious rites as well.