Nestled in South Korea's central region, the Chungcheong province includes Chungcheongbuk-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and the city of Daejeon. Since this area is just south of Seoul, it has benefited economically from its proximity. Industrial centers have grown especially around the Asanman area on the western coast. The two provinces of Chungcheong-do are actually side by side, although they are called north and south Chungcheong-do.

A major transportation thoroughfare for the capital region and the Honam (Jeolla-do) and Yeongnam (Gyeongsang-do) regions, the province's largest city, Daejeon, serves as a junction for both rail lines and highways.

Chungcheong-do specializes in dairy farming and agriculture to meet the huge demands of the capital region. The eastern part of the province, which borders Gangwon-do, is mountainous, but the western section is lower and flatter. Its major agricultural products are grains (mostly rice and barley) and a variety of vegetables, including radish, cabbage, and sweet potatoes. In fact, it has been a rice-producing area ever since the Baekje period. The mountainous parts of the province produce sanchae (wild greens) and mushrooms.