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To the list of those who tried to conquer Hawaii, add the Russians. In 1815, a German doctor tried to claim Kauai for Russia. He even supervised the construction of this fort in Waimea, named for the wife of Czar Alexander I (spelled “Elisabeth” on some signage), but he and his handful of Russian companions were expelled by Kamehameha I a couple of years later. Only the walls remain today, built with stacked lava rocks in the shape of a star. If the grounds have been recently mowed, you can easily follow a path around the fort’s perimeter to the oceanside entrance to the interior; see the interpretive sign by the parking lot. The site also provides panoramic views of the west bank of the Waimea River, where Captain Cook landed, and the island of Niihau. Note: Tidy restrooms and a picnic table make this a convenient pit stop.