Southeast of Kinsale, at the head of the harbor, this coastal landmark dating from the late 17th century was named after Charles II, who was king of England and Ireland at the time it was built. A classic star-shaped fort, it was constructed after the Battle of Kinsale (1601) to replace medieval Ringcurran Castle, which had been reduced to rubble by the English army. The building was strengthened throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and the fort remained in use as a military garrison right up until the British left in 1921. It suffered extensive damage during the civil war, and has only recently been restored. Across the river, the smaller James Fort dates to the reign of King James I (1603–25) and was later captured in 1690 by the forces of (Protestant) King William I during his war with the deposed (Catholic) James II—part of the same conflict that is still commemorated by Protestant “Orange marches” in Northern Ireland.