No visit to Leiden is complete without seeing this museum, the most comprehensive of its kind in the Netherlands. It opened in 1818, and over the years it has acquired an impressive collection of Egyptian, Near East, Greek, and Roman artifacts. It's still a center for archaeological research. The first exhibit to catch your eye will be the magnificent "Egyptian Temple of Taffeh" from the 1st century A.D. -- the museum's pride and glory. Greek and Roman sculpture are well represented, and there are some beautiful examples of Greek decorated ceramics. The top floor provides an overview of the archaeological finds in the Netherlands from prehistoric times to the early Middle Ages.