With so much to experience in a state as big as New South Wales, you're not going to see all the major attractions in one hit, so you must prioritize. If you have a couple of days to spare, you should certainly head out to the World Heritage-listed Blue Mountains, part of the Great Dividing Range that separates the lush eastern coastal strip from the more arid interior. Or spend a day in the vineyards of the Hunter Valley. If you have a few more days, I recommend heading to Port Stephens to look for dolphins and koalas in a beautiful environment, or down to the pristine beaches of Jervis Bay for gorgeous scenery and great bushwalks.
For longer trips, you can head north toward the Queensland border on the 964km (598-mile) route to Brisbane. You'll pass pretty seaside towns, deserted beaches, and tropical hinterland. Another option is to travel along the south coast 1,032km (640 miles) to Melbourne. Along the way are some of the country's most spectacular beaches, quaint hamlets, opportunities to spot dolphins and whales, and extensive national parks. If you want to experience the Outback, then head west across the Blue Mountains. The main Outback destinations of note are the extraordinary opal-mining town of Lightning Ridge, where you can meet some of the most eccentric "fair-dinkum" (authentic or genuine) Aussies you'll come across anywhere, and the fascinating inland town of Broken Hill.