• 22000–10000 B.C. Paleolithic people create some of the world’s earliest art with rock carvings of animals in the valley of the Côa River.

  • 210 B.C. The Romans invade the peninsula, meeting fierce resistance from the Celtiberian people.


  • 60 B.C. During the reign of Julius Caesar, Portugal is fully integrated into the Roman Empire.


  • A.D. 409 Invaders from across the Pyrenees arrive, establishing a Visigothic empire that endures for some 2 centuries.


  • 711 Moorish warriors arrive in Iberia and conquer Portugal within 7 years.


  • 1065 Ferdinand, king of León and Castile, sets about reorganizing his western territories into what is now modern Portugal.


  • 1143 Afonso Henríques is proclaimed the first king of Portugal and begins to drive the Moors out of the Algarve.


  • 1249 Afonso III completes the Reconquista of the Algarve, as Christians drive out the Moors.


  • 1279-1325 Reign of Dinis, the Poet King. Castile recognizes Portugal's borders.


  • 1385 Battle of Aljubarrota. João de Avis defeats the Castilians and founds the House of Avis to rule Portugal.


  • 1415 Henry the Navigator sets up a school of navigation in Sagres. Madeira is discovered in 1419; the Azores are discovered in 1427.


  • 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope.


  • 1498 Vasco da Gama rounds India's west coast, opening up trade between the West and the East.


  • 1500 Brazil is discovered. Peak of the reign of Manuel the Fortunate (1495-1521). Portugal's Golden Age begins.


  • 1521 Portugal becomes the first of the great maritime world empires, dominating access to the Indian Ocean.


  • 1521-57 Reign of João III, ushering in Jesuits and the Inquisition.


  • 1578 João's son, Dom Sebastião, disappears in the battle of Morocco, leaving Portugal without an heir.


  • 1581-1640 Philip II of Spain brings Habsburg rule to Portugal.


  • 1640 Following a nationalist revolution, João IV restores independence and launches the House of Bragança.


  • 1755 A great earthquake destroys Lisbon and parts of Alentejo and the Algarve.


  • 1822 Portugal declares Brazil independent.


  • 1908 Carlos I, the Painter King, and his son, the crown prince, are assassinated in Lisbon.


  • 1910 The monarchy is ousted and the Portuguese Republic is established.


  • 1916 Portugal enters World War I on the side of the Allies.


  • 1926 The Republic collapses and a military dictatorship under Gomes da Costa is established.


  • 1932-68 António de Oliveira Salazar keeps a tight hold on the government during his long reign as dictator. Portugal is officially neutral in World War II, but Salazar grants the Allies bases in the Azores.


  • 1955 Portugal joins the United Nations.


  • 1974 The April "flower revolution" topples the dictatorship; Portugal collapses into near anarchy.


  • 1976-83 Sixteen provisional governments reign over a Portugal in chaos.


  • 1986 Portugal joins the European Union. Mário Soares is elected president.


  • 1989 Privatization of state-owned companies begins.


  • 1991 Soares is reelected.


  • 1992 Portugal holds the presidency of the European Union.


  • 1995 Portugal is designated the cultural capital of Europe.


  • 1998 Millions flock to Lisbon for EXPO '98, celebrating the heritage of the oceans.


  • 1999 Portugal officially adopts the euro as its soon-to-be standard currency.


  • 2002 Portugal abandons the escudo and switches to the euro.


  • 2001-05 Under a Socialist government, Portugal continues to carry out modern reforms.


  • 2006 Portugal sets aside its southwest coast as a natural park; Aníbal Cavaco Silva becomes president.


  • 2008-2009 Portugal legalizes abortion but upholds ban on gay marriage.

  • 2011 Hit hard by euro-zone debt crisis, Portugal requests $86 billion IMF-EU bailout; prolonged recession, record unemployment.

  • 2014 Banco Espírito Santo, Portugal’s second-largest bank, collapses.

  • 2015 Left wins narrow election victory; minority Socialist government takes power under Prime Minister António Costa, on pledge to roll back austerity.

  • 2016 Cristiano Ronaldo leads Portugal to victory in Euro 2016 soccer championship, country goes wild; former Prime Minister António Guterres appointed U.N. Secretary General; Web Summit, world’s largest tech fest, moves to Lisbon in symbol of Portugal’s economic revival.

  • 2017 Wildfires ravage the countryside across north and central Portugal, leaving more than 100 dead.

Note: This information was accurate when it was published, but can change without notice. Please be sure to confirm all rates and details directly with the companies in question before planning your trip.