Founded in 1905, the Pinacoteca is not only the oldest museum in Brazil, but it's also one of São Paulo's finest art museums, specializing in Brazilian art from the 19th century to the present day. The award-winning museum building, renovated in 1990 by architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha, is worth a visit in itself. While preserving and exposing the original brick structure of this 19th-century palace, Rocha removed interior walls, inserted skylights, and added metal walkways to create plenty of bright open spaces for displaying art. The first floor is reserved for temporary exhibits—there are as many as 30 different exhibits a year, always focusing on Brazilian art. The second floor displays the museum's permanent collection and provides a great overview of Brazilian art history. Also be sure to visit the garden to admire the museum's sculpture collection. Allow two to three hours to see it all.