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  • 11th century B.C. Phoenicians settle Spain's coasts.
  • 650 B.C. Greeks colonize the east.
  • 600 B.C. Celts cross the Pyrenees and settle in Spain.
  • 6th-3rd century B.C. Carthaginians make Cartagena their colonial capital, driving out the Greeks.
  • 218-201 B.C. Second Punic War: Rome defeats Carthage.
  • 2nd century B.C.-2nd century A.D. Rome controls most of Iberia. Christianity spreads.
  • 5th century Vandals, then Visigoths, invade Spain.
  • 8th century Moors conquer most of Spain.
  • 1214 More than half of Iberia is reclaimed by Catholics.
  • 1469 Ferdinand of Aragón marries Isabella of Castile.
  • 1492 Catholic monarchs seize Granada, the last Moorish stronghold. Columbus lands in the New World.
  • 1519 Cortés conquers Mexico. Charles I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, as Charles V.
  • 1556 Philip II inherits the throne and launches the Counter-Reformation.
  • 1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada.
  • 1700 Philip V becomes king. The War of Spanish Succession follows.
  • 1713 Treaty of Utrecht ends the war. Spain's colonies are reduced.
  • 1759 Charles III ascends throne.
  • 1808 Napoleon places his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne.
  • 1813 Wellington drives the French out of Spain; the monarchy is restored.
  • 1876 Spain becomes a constitutional monarchy.
  • 1898 Spanish-American War leads to Spain's loss of Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
  • 1923 Primo de Rivera forms a military directorate.
  • 1930 Right-wing dictatorship ends; Primo de Rivera exiled.
  • 1931 King Alfonso XIII abdicates; Second Republic is born.
  • 1936-39 Civil War between the governing Popular Front and the Nationalists led by Gen. Francisco Franco.
  • 1939 Franco establishes dictatorship, which will last 36 years.
  • 1941 Spain technically stays neutral in World War II, but Franco favors Germany.
  • 1955 Spain joins the United Nations.
  • 1975 Juan Carlos becomes king. Franco dies.
  • 1978 New democratic constitution initiates reforms.
  • 1981 Coup attempt by right-wing officers fails.
  • 1982 Socialists gain power after 43 years of right-wing rule.
  • 1986 Spain joins the European Community (now the European Union).
  • 1992 Barcelona hosts the Summer Olympics.
  • 1996 A conservative party defeats the Socialist party, ending its 13-year rule. José María Aznar is chosen prime minister.
  • 1998 The controversial Guggenheim Museum at Bilbao is inaugurated.
  • 2002 Spain adopts the euro as its national currency.
  • 2003 Basque terrorists continue a campaign of terror against the government.
  • 2004 Al Qaeda strikes Spanish trains in the deadliest terrorist attack in Europe since World War II. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is elected as Socialist prime minister.
  • 2005 Spain legalizes same-sex marriage.
  • 2006 A bomb goes off at Madrid's airport; Basque separatist group ETA claims responsibility.
  • 2007 ETA calls an end to cease-fire.
  • 2009 Spain's once-buoyant economy suffers severe downturn. Unemployment reaches 17%.
  • Note: This information was accurate when it was published, but can change without notice. Please be sure to confirm all rates and details directly with the companies in question before planning your trip.