The Faces of Yellowstone
By the end of the 1872 Hayden expedition, explorers had identified several distinct areas in the park, each with its own physical characteristics. Less spectacular than the craggy mountain scenery of Grand Teton, and less imposing than the vast expanses of the Grand Canyon in Arizona, Yellowstone’s beauty is subtle, reflecting the changes it has undergone during its explosive past.
Although Yellowstone has its share of mountains, much of the park is a high mountain plateau. The environment changes dramatically as you ascend the mountain slopes from the foothill zones in the valleys—the elevation at the entrance at West Yellowstone is 6,666 feet, for example, compared to 5,314 feet at the Gardiner entrance. Because the park lies about halfway between the equator and the North Pole, its summers consist of long, warm days that stimulate plant growth at the lower elevations.
At the lowest elevations, down around 5,300 feet above sea level, you’ll find grassy flats and sagebrush growing on dry, porous soils, with creeks and rivers cutting through to form wildlife-rich riparian zones. The foothills, sloping upward toward peaks, are sometimes dotted by deposits of glacial moraine. Douglas fir, pine, and other conifers, as well aspen clad these slopes, and are marshes and ponds are fed by the spring snowmelt. Shrubs and flowers, such as huckleberry and columbine, favor these wet, shady spots.
Then comes the mountain zone (6,000–7,600 ft.), thickening forests dominated by lodgepole pine, broken by meadows where deer, elk, and moose often graze. The transition area between the highest forest and the bare surface above timberline is known as the subalpine zone (7,600–11,300 ft.). Finally, we come to the bare rock at the very top of the continental shelf, where small, hardy plants bloom briefly after the annual thaw.
Although the park is most famous for its geysers, visitors can choose among very different environments, reflections of the long-term effects of geologic activity and weather.
The limestone terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs give testimony to the region’s subsurface volcanic activity. The park sits atop a rare geologic hot spot where molten rock rises to within 2 miles of the Earth’s surface, heating the water in a plumbing system that still mystifies scientists.
The northern section of the park, between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Tower-Roosevelt region, is a high-plains area that is defined by mountains, forests, and broad expanses of river valleys that were created by ice floes.
The road between the Tower-Roosevelt junction and the northeast entrance winds through the Lamar Valley, an area that has been covered by glaciers three times, most recently during an ice age that began 25,000 years ago and continued for 10,000 years—in geologic terms, just yesterday. Because this area was a favorite of Theodore Roosevelt, it is often referred to as “Roosevelt Country.” The beautiful valley where elk, bison, and wolves interact is dotted with glacial ponds and strewn with boulders deposited by moving ice.
Farther south are Pelican and Hayden Valleys, the two largest ancient lake beds in the park. They feature large, open meadows with abundant plant life that provides food for a population of bison and elk.
In the warm months, you’ll enjoy the contrast between the lush green valleys and Canyon Country, in the center of the park. Canyon Country is defined by the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone, a colorful, 1,000-foot-deep, 24-mile-long gorge—in many opinions, just as dramatic as its cousin in Arizona. The Yellowstone River cuts through the valley, in some places moving 64,000 cubic feet of water per second, and creating two waterfalls, one of which is more than twice the height of Niagara Falls.
When you arrive at the southern geyser basins, you might feel that you’ve been transported through a geologic time warp. Here you will find the largest collections of thermal areas in the world—there are perhaps 600 geysers and 10,000 geothermal features in the park—and the largest geysers in Yellowstone. The result: boiling water that is catapulted skyward and barren patches of sterile dirt; hot, bubbling pools that are unimaginably colorful; and, of course, the star of this show, the geyser Old Faithful.
You’ll see the park’s volcanic activity on a 17-mile journey east to the lake area, the scene of three volcanic eruptions that took place more than 600,000 years ago. When the final eruption blasted more than 1,000 square miles of the Rocky Mountains into the stratosphere, it created the Yellowstone caldera, a massive depression measuring 28 by 47 miles, and Yellowstone Lake basin, some 20 miles long and 14 miles wide, reaching depths of 390 feet. The landscape here consists of flat plateaus of lava that are hundreds of feet thick.
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