Within the city walls, near the Bishop’s Gate, this Protestant cathedral was built by the Church of Ireland between 1628 and 1633 as a prime example of the so-called “Planters Gothic” style of architecture. It was the first cathedral built in Europe after the Reformation, although several sections were added afterward, including the impressive spire and stained-glass windows depicting scenes from the siege of 1688–1689. The chapter house contains a display of city relics such as four massive original padlocks for the city gates. On the porch, a small stone inscribed “IN TEMPLO VERUS DEUS EST VEREO COLENDUS” (“The true God is in His temple and is to be truly worshipped”) is part of the original 1164 church. An old mortar shell on the porch was fired into the churchyard during the great siege of 1689; in its hollow core it held proposed terms of surrender. Flags around the chancel window were captured during the siege, a pivotal moment in William of Orange’s war against James II. The war and its aftermath had a far-reaching effect on Ireland, leading to the so-called “Plantation,” whereby land was confiscated from Irish Catholics and given to favored Protestant (mostly English) families—thus cementing Protestant hegemony for centuries. The war was ultimately decided at the Battle of the Boyne, which is still commemorated annually in Northern Ireland by controversial parades, led by the Protestant Orange Order, on and around July 12.