Tried & True: Hawaii Regional Cuisine

Peter Merriman, a founding member of Hawaii Regional Cuisine (HRC) and a recipient of the James Beard Award for Best Chef: Northwest/Hawaii (along with George Mavrothalassitis of Chef Mavro Restaurant), describes the current trend in Hawaii as a refinement, a tweaking upward, of everything from fine dining to down-home local cooking. This means sesame- or nori-crusted fresh catch on plate-lunch menus, and huli-huli chicken at five-diamond eateries, paired with Beaujolais and leeks and gourmet long rice.

At the same time, says Merriman, HRC, the style of cooking that put Hawaii on the international culinary map, has become watered down, a buzzword: "A lot of restaurants are paying lip service."

As it is with things au courant, it is easy to make a claim but another thing to live up to it. As Merriman points out, HRC was never solely about technique; it is equally about ingredients and the chef's creativity and integrity. "We continue to get local inspiration," says Merriman. "We've never restricted ourselves." If there is a fabulous French or Thai dish, chefs like Merriman will prepare it with local ingredients and add a creative edge that makes it distinctively Hawaiian.

HRC was established in the mid-1980s in a culinary revolution that catapulted Hawaii into the global epicurean arena. The international training, creative vigor, fresh ingredients, and cross-cultural menus of the 12 original HRC chefs have made the islands a dining destination applauded nationwide. (In a tip of the toque to island tradition, ahi -- a word ubiquitous in Hawaii -- has replaced tuna on many chic New York menus.)

Here's a sampling of what you can expect to find on a Hawaii Regional Cuisine menu: seared Hawaiian fish with lilikoi shrimp butter; taro-crab cakes; Pahoa corn cakes; Molokai sweet-potato or breadfruit vichyssoise; Ka'u orange sauce and Kahua Ranch lamb; fern shoots from Waipio Valley; Maui onion soup and Hawaiian bouillabaisse, with fresh snapper, Kona crab, and fresh aquacultured shrimp; blackened ahi summer rolls; herb-crusted onaga; and gourmet Waimanalo greens, picked that day. You may also encounter locally made cheeses, squash and taro risottos, Polynesian imu-baked foods, and guava-smoked meats. If there's pasta or risotto or rack of lamb on the menu, it could be nori (red algae) linguine with opihi (limpet) sauce, or risotto with local seafood served in taro cups, or rack of lamb in cabernet and hoisin sauce (fermented soybean, garlic, and spices). Watch for ponzu sauce, too; it's lemony and zesty, much more flavorful than the soy sauce it resembles.

Nearly 3 decades later, the movement to unite local farms and kitchens has only grown more vibrant. Many of the HRC heavyweights continue to keep things hot in island kitchens. On Maui, Gannon and Ellman still run several popular restaurants apiece (including her Gannon’s and Haliimaile General Store and his Frida’s and Mala Ocean Tavern), while HRC cofounders Peter Merriman and Roy Yamaguchi also have outposts of their culinary empires here (Merriman’s and Monkeypod Kitchen from the former, Roy’s and Humble Market Kitchin from the latter). They aren’t, by any means, the sole source of good eats on Maui, however. Top Chef fan favorite Sheldon Simeon celebrates his Filipino roots and local cuisine at his simple Tin Roof lunch counter in Kahului and chic Lineage restaurant in Wailea. Francophiles will delight in the classic French cooking at Gerard’s on Maui. High-quality sushi can be found from humble spots in Central Maui to gourmet resort restaurants such as Iron Chef Matsuhara Morimoto’s Morimoto Maui in Wailea and D.K. Kodama’s Sansei in Kapalua. Hyper-fresh “farm to table” cuisine is now just par for the course at popular oceanfront restaurants in Lahaina and Kaanapali, as well in as more moderately priced dining rooms in Kahului and Kihei.

Plate Lunches & More: Local Food

At the other end of the spectrum is the vast and endearing world of "local food." By that, I mean plate lunches and poke, shave ice and saimin, bento lunches and manapua -- cultural hybrids all.

Reflecting a polyglot population of many styles and ethnicities, Hawaii's idiosyncratic dining scene is eminently inclusive. Consider surfer chic: Barefoot in the sand, in a swimsuit, you chow down on a plate lunch ordered from a lunch wagon, consisting of fried mahimahi, "two scoops rice," macaroni salad, and a few leaves of green, typically julienned cabbage. (Generally, teriyaki beef and shoyu chicken are options.) Heavy gravy is often the condiment of choice, accompanied by a soft drink in a paper cup or straight out of the can. Like saimin -- the local version of noodles in broth topped with scrambled eggs, green onions, and sometimes pork -- the plate lunch is Hawaii's version of high camp.

But it was only a matter of time before the humble plate lunch became a culinary icon in Hawaii. These days, even the most chichi restaurant has a version of this modest island symbol (not at plate-lunch prices, of course), while vendors selling the real thing -- carb-driven meals served from wagons -- have queues that never end.

Because this is Hawaii, at least a few licks of poi -- cooked, pounded taro (the traditional Hawaiian staple crop) -- are a must. Other native foods include those from before and after Western contact, such as laulau (pork, chicken, or fish steamed in ti leaves), kalua pork (pork cooked in a Polynesian underground oven known here as an imu), lomi salmon (salted salmon with tomatoes and green onions), squid luau (cooked in coconut milk and taro tops), poke (cubed raw fish seasoned with onions and seaweed and the occasional sprinkling of roasted kukui nuts), haupia (creamy coconut pudding), and kulolo (steamed pudding of coconut, brown sugar, and taro).

Bento, another popular quick meal available throughout Hawaii, is a compact, boxed assortment of picnic fare usually consisting of neatly arranged sections of rice, pickled vegetables, and fried chicken, beef, or pork. Increasingly, however, the bento is becoming more health conscious, as in macrobiotic or vegetarian brown-rice bentos. A derivative of the modest lunch box for Japanese immigrants who once labored in the sugar and pineapple fields, bentos are dispensed everywhere, from department stores to corner delis and supermarkets.

Also from the plantations comes manapua, a bready, doughy sphere filled with tasty fillings of sweetened pork or sweet beans. In the old days, the Chinese "manapua man" would make his rounds with bamboo containers balanced on a rod over his shoulders. Today you'll find white or whole-wheat manapua containing chicken, vegetables, curry, and other savory fillings.

The daintier Chinese delicacy dim sum is made of translucent wrappers filled with fresh seafood, pork hash, and vegetables, served for breakfast and lunch in Chinatown restaurants. The Hong Kong-style dumplings are ordered fresh and hot from bamboo steamers rolled on carts from table to table. Much like hailing a taxi in Manhattan, you have to be quick and loud for dim sum.

For dessert or a snack, particularly on Oahu's North Shore, the prevailing choice is shave ice, Hawaii's version of a snow cone. Particularly on hot, humid days, long lines of shave-ice lovers gather for heaps of finely shaved ice topped with sweet tropical syrups. (The sweet-sour li hing mui flavor is a current favorite.) The fast-melting mounds, which require prompt, efficient consumption, are quite the local summer ritual for sweet tooths. Aficionados order shave ice with ice cream and sweetened adzuki beans plopped in the middle.

Ahi, Ono & Opakapaka: A Hawaiian Seafood Primer

The seafood in Hawaii has been described as the best in the world. And why not? Without a doubt, the islands' surrounding waters, including the waters of the remote northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and a growing aquaculture industry contribute to the high quality of the seafood here.

The reputable restaurants in Hawaii buy fresh fish daily at predawn auctions or from local fishermen. Some chefs even catch their ingredients themselves. "Still wiggling" and "just off the hook" are the ultimate terms for freshness in Hawaii.

Although some menus include the Western description for the fresh fish used, most often the local nomenclature is listed, turning dinner into a confusing, quasi-foreign experience for the uninitiated. To help familiarize you with the menu language of Hawaii, here's a basic glossary of Hawaii's fish:

ahi—yellowfin or big-eye tuna, important for its use in sashimi and poke at sushi bars and in Hawaii Regional Cuisine

aku—skipjack tuna, heavily used by local families in home cooking and poke

ehu—red snapper, delicate and sumptuous, yet lesser known than opakapaka

hapuupuu—grouper, a sea bass whose use is expanding

hebi—spearfish, mildly flavored, and frequently featured as the "catch of the day" in upscale restaurants

kajiki—Pacific blue marlin, also called au, with a firm flesh and high fat content that make it a plausible substitute for tuna

kumu—goatfish, a luxury item on Chinese and upscale menus, served en papillote or steamed whole, Oriental style, with scallions, ginger, and garlic

mahimahi—dolphin fish (the game fish, not the mammal) or dorado, a classic sweet, white-fleshed fish requiring vigilance among purists because it's often disguised as fresh when it's actually "fresh-frozen"—a big difference

monchong—bigscale or sickle pomfret, an exotic, tasty fish, scarce but gaining a higher profile on Hawaiian Island menus

nairagi—striped marlin, also called au, good as sashimi and in poke, and often substituted for ahi in raw-fish products

onaga—ruby snapper, a luxury fish, versatile, moist, and flaky

ono—wahoo, firmer and drier than the snappers, often served grilled and in sandwiches

opah—moonfish, rich and fatty, and versatile -- cooked, raw, smoked, and broiled

opakapaka—pink snapper, light, flaky, and luxurious, suited for sashimi, poaching, sautéing, and baking; the best-known upscale fish

papio—jack trevally, light, firm, and flavorful, and favored in Hawaiian cookery

shutome—broadbill swordfish, of beeflike texture and rich flavor

tombo—albacore tuna, with a high fat content, suitable for grilling

uhu—parrotfish, most often encountered steamed, Chinese style

uku—gray snapper of clear, pale-pink flesh, delicately flavored and moist

ulua—large jack trevally, firm fleshed and versatile

Ululani’s Shave Ice

David and Ululani Yamashiro are near-religious about shave ice. At their multiple shops around Maui, these shave-ice wizards take the uniquely Hawaiian dessert to new heights. It starts with the water: Pure, filtered water is frozen, shaved to feather-lightness, and patted into shape. This mini snowdrift is then doused with your choice of syrup—any three flavors from calamansi lime to lychee to red velvet cake. David makes his own gourmet syrups with local fruit purees and a dash of cane sugar. The passionfruit is perfectly tangy, the coconut is free of cloying artificial sweetness, and the electric green kiwi is studded with real seeds. Add a “snowcap” of sweetened condensed milk, and the resulting confection tastes like the fluffiest, most flavorful ice cream ever. Locals order theirs with chewy mochi morsels, sweet adzuki beans at the bottom, or tart li hing mui powder sprinkled on top (Lahaina: 819 Front St. and 790 Front St.; Kahului: 333 Dairy Rd.; Kihei: 61 S. Kihei Rd.; and Maalaea: Maalaea General Store, 132 Maalaea Rd.;; 360/606-2745; daily 10:30am–6:30pm [10:30am–10pm in Lahaina]).

Groceries & Edible Souvenirs

Consider the following shops, markets, and stands to offset some of your culinary splurges—or to stock up on tasty souvenirs to bring back home:

Immediately outside of Kahului Airport, the monolith of Costco, 540 Haleakala Hwy., (; 808/877-52451) offers members numerous local items—including macadamia nuts, Kona coffee, and Maui pineapple. (The discount gas makes this a worthy stop at the end of your vacation.)

You can stock up on quality snacks (at steep prices) for your hotel room at Whole Foods, in the Maui Mall, 70 E. Kaahumanu Ave., Kahului (; 808/872-3310). The meat selection is superior and they have Bubbies mochi ice cream (multiple flavors) in bulk. Around the corner, Down to Earth, 305 Dairy Rd., Kahului (; 808/877-2661) dishes out vegetarian deli items and an assortment of natural foods.

True gourmands should prioritize a trip to Mana Foods ★★★, 49 Baldwin Ave., Paia (; 808/579-8078). The state’s best health-food store hides behind an unimposing dark-green facade in the center of the north shore town. Shopping here is an adventure, to be sure—parking can be a nuisance, and the narrow aisles inside are crammed with nuevo hippies and wild-haired children. Don’t let this dissuade you. The compact store has a better natural-foods selection than you’ll find in most big cities—at great prices, too. The deli turns out fresh-made sushi, soups, salads, hot entrees, and raw desserts. The produce shelves are worthy of worship, with ripe avocados, local asparagus, and more tropical fruits than you have names for. Ask to sample rambutan or rolinia and hit up the health and beauty room for locally made soaps and hard-to-find essential oils.

On Saturday, visit the Maui Swap Meet or the Upcountry Farmers Market ★★★. The market fills the Kulamalu Town Center parking lot in Pukalani (near Longs Drugs). You’ll find local honey, fresh-shucked coconuts, pickled veggies, and heaps of bright, Maui-grown produce, plus ready-to-eat foods, flower bouquets, and gorgeous hand-carved cutting boards.

On the road to Hana, you’ll pass many tempting fruit stands. The best of the bunch is Hana Farms ★★, 2190 Hana Hwy. (; 808/248-7553), a series of thatched huts just outside of Hana town that overflow with every variety of tropical fruit, Maui-grown coffee, and fresh-squeezed juices and ginger sodas that are just the ticket if the drive has made you queasy. Stock up on coconut candy, hot sauce, lilikoi jam, and banana butter to slather on top of your choice of six banana breads. Everything is grown nearby.

Elsewhere on the island, coffee lovers can get their fix at the MauiGrown Coffee Company Store, 277 Lahainaluna Rd., Lahaina (; 808/661-2728), which opens at 6:30am every day but Sunday. The Maui Mokka variety sold here is among the world’s oldest and rarest coffees; the rich, chocolatey beans regularly win awards. Maui Coffee Roasters, 444 Hana Hwy., Kahului (; 808/877-2877) is another dependable caffeine source, with a huge assortment of Hawaiian grown coffees, conveniently located near the airport.

For a taste of plantation-era cuisine, head to Takamiya Market, 359 N. Market St., Wailuku (; 808/244-3404). Unpretentious home-cooked dishes include shoyu chicken, fried squid, kalua pork, Chinese noodles, pohole (fiddlehead) ferns, and Western comfort foods such as cornbread and potato salad. The chilled-fish counter has fresh sashimi, poke, and limu (seaweed).

Note: This information was accurate when it was published, but can change without notice. Please be sure to confirm all rates and details directly with the companies in question before planning your trip.