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  • 10000-5000 B.C. Neolothic cultures spread out across North Africa.

  • 1100-150 B.C. The sea-faring Phoenicians, followed by the Carthaginians, settle along the North African coast.

  • 146 B.C. After the fall of Carthage, Roman influence makes its way to North Africa.

  • 27 B.C. Direct Roman rule extends to Morocco as far as Volubilis (near Meknes).

  • A.D. 253 Roman Empire begins to crumble and withdraws from Morocco.

  • 429-535 Vandals, followed by Byzantines, briefly occupy Morocco.

  • 622 The spread of Islam begins from Medina.

  • 700s Arab invasion installs Islam across North Africa.

  • 788-923 The Idrissid dynasty is the first Moroccan Arab dynasty, established by Moulay Idriss I and his son, Idriss II, in Fes.

  • 1062-1145 The Berber Almoravid dynasty is established in Marrakech. Eventual rule extends to Spain.

  • 1147-1248 The orthodox Almohad dynasty comes down from the High Atlas to depose Almohads and extends its rule farther into Spain and across to Tripoli.

  • 1248-1465 Merenid dynasty builds extensively within Morocco. Portuguese invade Moroccan coast.

  • 1465-1554 Wattasid dynasty takes hold. Andalusia falls, and there's a rise in Jewish and Muslim immigration to Morocco.

  • 1554-1669 Marrakech-based Saadian dynasty ejects the Portuguese and extends rule south to Timbuktu.

  • 1669-Present The Berber Alaouite from the Tafilalt is established and is still in power today with the 15th sultan, King Mohammed VI. Morocco, through Sultan Mohammed III in 1786, is the first nation to formally recognize a newly independent United States.

  • Late 1800s European interest in Morocco grows as the "Scramble for Africa" begins in earnest.

  • 1906 Algeciras Conference in Spain; France and Spain designated by European powers to control Moroccan ports and collect customs dues.

  • 1912 Morocco divided into French and Spanish protectorates, administered by resident-generals. The sultan's influence subsides to a largely figurehead role.

  • 1943 Istiqlal, the Party of Independence, is founded with support from Sultan Mohammed V.

  • 1956 End of protectorate era after unrest and strong nationalist sentiment. Spain keeps its two coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Mellila. Sultan Mohammed V becomes king in 1957.

  • 1961 Death of King Mohammed V; son Hassan II accedes to the throne.

  • 1963 Morocco holds first general election as the country moves from a traditional sultanate to a constitutional monarchy.

  • 1973 Polisario movement formed -- with Algerian support -- to establish an independent state in Spanish Sahara.

  • 1975 The Green March. King Hassan sends 300,000 civilian volunteers into Spanish Sahara. Spain hands over Spanish Sahara to joint Moroccan-Mauritanian control. Algeria objects.

  • 1976 Moroccan and Algerian troops clash. Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) formed with Algerian assistance as a government-in-exile. Morocco and Mauritania divide Western Sahara.

  • 1976-91 Continuous fighting between Moroccan military and Polisario guerillas.

  • 1984 Organisation of African Unity (OAU) admits SADR; Morocco resigns membership in protest.

  • 1991 U.N.-monitored ceasefire begins in Western Sahara. Proposed referendum on the territory's future fails to be agreed upon.

  • 1998 Morocco's first opposition-led government comes to power.

  • 1999 King Hassan II dies and is succeeded by his son, Mohammed VI.

  • 2003 More than 40 people are killed when suicide bombers attack several sites in Casablanca, including a Jewish community center and Spanish restaurant.

  • 2004 Devastating earthquake hits the north; more than 500 people dead.

  • 2004 Free trade agreement begins with the U.S. following Washington's designation of Morocco as a major non-NATO ally.

  • 2005 Truth commission set up by King Mohammed VI to investigate human rights abuses during the rule of his father, King Hassan II. Commission says 592 people were killed from 1956 to 1999.

  • 2007 Suicide bombings in Casablanca. Morocco and the Polisario Front hold U.N.-sponsored talks in New York but fail to come to any agreement.

  • 2008 More than 40 people are condemned to long prison sentences for the 2007 Casablanca bombings. Two Moroccan men are found guilty of implication in 2004 Madrid train bombings. U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits Morocco and discusses anti-terrorism measures, political reform, and the Western Sahara.
  • 2009 A Moroccan man is given a 15-year prison sentence for involvement in the 2003 Casablanca bombings, and is also wanted for the 2004 Madrid train bombings. A Moroccan man alleged to be leader of the local Al Qaeda franchise is jailed for life. Morocco breaks off relations with Iran after an Iranian politician stated Bahrain was a former province of Iran.
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