Founded in 1360, this monastery on the east bank of the Yauza River was slated for demolition in the Soviet era. Instead, it became a museum of early Russian art. Today the museum shares the site with monks who are again using the monastery for its original purpose. While simpler and less well-preserved than the Kremlin's cathedrals or Novodevichy, this monastery feels more authentic. Tour groups usually ignore it, making it calmer and less souvenir-heavy. Andrei Rublev, perhaps Russia's greatest icon painter, spent his last years in this monastery and died here in 1430. You can see many of his works here -- if you have any interest in Orthodox icons, this is the place to visit. Andrei Tarkovsky's film Andrei Rublev is a chilling and gripping journey through medieval Russia that took years to make it past Soviet censors, and provides a great context for visiting this monastery. It's rather out-of-the-way, so give yourself at least an hour once you get here.