Chaco Culture National Historical Park

A combination of a stunning setting and well-preserved ruins makes the long drive to Chaco Culture National Historic Park, often referred to as Chaco Canyon, worth the trip. Whether you come from the north or south, you drive in on a dusty (and sometimes muddy) road that seems to add to the authenticity and adventure of this remote New Mexico experience.

When you finally arrive, you walk through stark desert country that seems perhaps ill suited as a center of culture. However, the ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) people successfully farmed the lowlands and built great masonry towns, which connected with other towns over a wide-ranging network of roads crossing this desolate place.

What's most interesting here is how changes in architecture -- beginning in the mid-800s, when the Anasazi started building on a larger scale than they had previously -- chart the area's cultural progress. The Anasazi used the same masonry techniques that tribes had used in smaller villages in the region (walls one stone thick, with generous use of mud mortar), but they built stone villages of multiple stories with rooms several times larger than in the previous stage of their culture. Within a century, six large pueblos were underway. This pattern of a single large pueblo with oversize rooms, surrounded by conventional villages, caught on throughout the region. New communities built along these lines sprang up. Old villages built similarly large pueblos. Eventually there were more than 75 such towns, most of them closely tied to Chaco by an extensive system of roads. Aerial photos show hundreds of miles of roads connecting these towns with the Chaco pueblos, one of the longest running 42 miles straight north to Salmon Ruins and the Aztec Ruins. It is this road network that leads some scholars to believe that Chaco was the center of a unified Anasazi society.

This progress led to Chaco becoming the economic center of the San Juan Basin by A.D. 1000. As many as 5,000 people may have lived in some 400 settlements in and around Chaco. As masonry techniques advanced through the years, walls rose more than four stories in height. Some of these are still visible today.

Chaco's decline after 1 1/2 centuries of success coincided with a drought in the San Juan Basin between A.D. 1130 and 1180. Scientists still argue vehemently over why the site was abandoned and where the Chacoans went. Many believe that an influx of outsiders may have brought new rituals to the region, causing a schism among tribal members. Most agree, however, that the people drifted away to more hospitable places in the region and that their descendants are today's Pueblo people.

This is an isolated area, and there are no services available within or close to the park -- no food, gas, auto repairs, firewood, lodging (besides the campground), or drinking water (other than at the visitor center) are available. Overnight camping is permitted year-round. If you're headed toward Santa Fe after a day at the park and looking for a place to spend the night, one nice option is the CaƱon del Rio-A Riverside Inn, 16445 Scenic Hwy. 4, Jemez Springs, NM 87025 (tel. 505/829-4377;

Getting There -- To get to Chaco from Santa Fe, take I-25 south to Bernalillo and then US 550 northwest. Turn off US 550 at CR 7900 (3 miles southeast of Nageezi and about 50 miles west of Cuba at mile 112.5). Follow the signs from US 550 to the park boundary (21 miles). This route includes 8 miles of paved road (CR 7900) and 13 miles of rough dirt road (CR 7950). This is the recommended route. NM 57 from Blanco Trading Post is closed. The trip takes about 3 1/2 to 4 hours. Farmington is the nearest population center, a 1 1/2-hour drive away. The park can also be reached from Grants via I-40 west to NM 371, which you follow north to Indian Route 9, east, and north again on NM 57 (IR 14), with the final 19 miles ungraded dirt. This route is rough to impassable and is not recommended for RVs.

Whichever way you come, call ahead to inquire about road conditions (tel. 505/786-7014) before leaving the paved highways. The dirt roads can get extremely muddy and dangerous after rain or snow, and afternoon thunderstorms are common in late summer. Roads often flood when it rains.

Visitor Information -- Ranger-guided walks and campfire talks are available in the summer at the visitor center where you can get self-guiding trail brochures and permits for the overnight campground. If you want information before you leave home, contact the Superintendent, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, 1808 County Rd. 7950, Nageezi, NM 87037 (tel. 505/786-7014;

Admission Fees & Hours -- Admission is $8 per car; a campsite is $10 extra. The visitor center is open daily from 8am to 5pm. Trails are open from sunrise to sunset.

Seeing the Highlights

Exploring the ruins and hiking are the most popular activities here. A series of pueblo ruins stands within 5 or 6 miles of each other on the broad, flat, treeless canyon floor. Plan to spend at least 3 to 4 hours here driving to and exploring the different pueblos. A one-way road from the visitor center loops up one side of the canyon and down the other. Parking lots are scattered along the road near the various pueblos; from most, it's only a short walk to the ruins.

You may want to focus your energy on seeing Pueblo Bonito, the largest prehistoric Southwest Native American dwelling ever excavated. It contains giant kivas and 800 rooms covering more than 3 acres. Also, the Pueblo Alto Trail is a nice hike that takes you up on the canyon rim so that you can see the ruins from above -- in the afternoon, with thunderheads building, the views are spectacular. If you're a cyclist, stop at the visitor center to pick up a map outlining ridable trails.

Where to Stay & Dine

If you're driving from the northwest, your best bet is to stay in the Farmington/Aztec area. However, if you're driving on US 550 from Albuquerque, you have limited options. The town of Cuba (pop. 600) offers good dining and okay accommodations. You may want to plan your drive to stop for lunch at El Bruno's Restaurante y Cantina, 6453 Main St. (US 550), in the center of Cuba (tel. 575/289-9429). Within an adobe building with ceiling vigas and Mexican leather furniture, and with a lovely patio, this place serves good New Mexican food and steaks. It's open daily 11am to 10pm. Diners can order from a full bar. Meanwhile, the lodging situation in this little town isn't quite so bright. Your only option here, really, is the Frontier Motel, on US 550 (tel. 505/289-3474). This place straddling both sides of the highway offers clean rooms to travelers. Be sure to get one on the south side of the highway, which is more upscale. Rooms have decent furnishings, fairly comfortable beds, and small baths. Most have a fridge and microwave. Prices range from $45 to $60.

Camping -- Gallo Campground, within the park, is quite popular with hikers. It's about 1 mile east of the visitor center; fees are $10 per night. The campground has 48 sites (group sites are also available), with fire grates (bring your own wood or charcoal), central toilets, and nonpotable water. Drinking water is available only at the visitor center. The campground cannot accommodate trailers over 30 feet.

As I said above, there's no place to stock up on supplies once you start the arduous drive to the canyon, so if you're camping, make sure you're well supplied, especially with water, before you head out.

The Jicarilla Apache Reservation

About 3,200 Apaches live on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation along US 64 and NM 537. Its 768,000 acres stretch from the Colorado border south 65 miles to US 550 near Cuba, New Mexico.

The word jicarilla (pronounced hick-ah-ree-ah) means "little basket," so it's no surprise that tribal craftspeople are noted for their basket weaving and beadwork. See their work, both contemporary and of museum quality, at the Jicarilla Apache Arts and Crafts Shop and Museum, a green building along US 64 west of the central village on the reservation (tel. 575/759-4274; In the back rooms here, I found women listening to 1950s rock while they wove baskets and strung beads. Two isolated pueblo ruins, open to the public, are found on the reservation: Cordova Canyon ruins on tribal Road 13 and Honolulu ruins on Road 63.

Though the area is lovely, there's not much else to do unless you're interested in hunting and fishing. Tribe members guide fishers and trophy hunters, most of whom seek elk, mule deer, or bear, into the reservation's rugged wilderness backcountry. Highlights of the Jicarilla calendar are the Little Beaver Celebration (mid-July), which features a rodeo, a 5-mile run, a draft-horse pull, and a powwow. The Stone Lake Fiesta (Sept 14-15 annually) includes a rodeo, ceremonial dances, and a footrace.

Admission to Jicarilla Apache Reservation is free, and visitors are welcome year-round. For information on outdoor activities and for general information, contact the Tribal Office at P.O. Box 507 (tel. 575/759-3242).

The Best Western Jicarilla Inn and Casino on US 64 (P.O. Box 233), Dulce, NM 87528 (tel. 800/742-1938 or 575/759-3663;, offers decent rooms and slot-machine play, though you'll find better accommodations in Chama .

Note: This information was accurate when it was published, but can change without notice. Please be sure to confirm all rates and details directly with the companies in question before planning your trip.