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This superb museum highlights life in the Americas before the Conquest and is the best place to learn about ancient Chilean life. In the former Royal Customs House, built in 1807 and right off the Plaza de Armas, is a bright  three-story space spotlighting Chilean First Nations in an excellent "Chile before Chile" exhibit. This is, after all, a long nation with drastically different climates and landscapes, making the First Nations history fascinating and complex. The Mapuche silver jewelry display, masks from the Aconcagua Valley dating to the third century and a mummy from the far northern coast dating to 1900 BC are just a few of the incredible artifacts. For a tour in English, book ahead.