The Dry Tortugas
70 miles W of Key West
Few people realize that the Florida Keys don't end at Key West, as about 70 miles west is a chain of seven small islands known as the Dry Tortugas. Because you've come this far, you might wish to visit them, especially if you're into bird-watching, their primary draw.
Ponce de León, who discovered this far-flung cluster of coral keys in 1513, named them Las Tortugas because of the many sea turtles, which still flock to the area during nesting season in the warm summer months. Oceanic charts later carried the preface "dry" to warn mariners that fresh water was unavailable here. Modern intervention has made drinking water available, but little else.
These undeveloped islands make a great day trip for travelers interested in seeing the natural anomalies of the Florida Keys -- especially the birds. The Dry Tortugas are nesting grounds and roosting sites for thousands of tropical and subtropical oceanic birds. Visitors will also find a historic fort, good fishing, and terrific snorkeling around shallow reefs.
By Boat -- Sunny Days Catamarans (tel. 800/236-7937 or 305/292-6100; www.sunnydayskeywest.com) operates the Fast Cat, a high-speed catamaran complete with sundeck and air-conditioning that zips you to and from the Dry Tortugas in two hours. The round-trip fare ($145 for adults, $135 for seniors, $100 for children) includes a continental breakfast; a buffet lunch with cold cuts, fresh veggies, fruits, salads, and unlimited sodas and water; an island tour; and a snorkeling excursion to a shipwreck in 5 to 20 feet of water. The high-speed catamaran leaves Key West for Garden Key at 8am and returns by 6pm. Expect to spend about 4 1/2 hours at Fort Jefferson. The Dry Tortugas Ferry (tel. 800/634-0939; www.fastcatferry.com), will also take you there and is cheaper than Sunny Days. During the transit to the park an onboard naturalist will give you an orientation about the area and the national park's surroundings. Passengers also have the option of taking a 40-minute guided tour of Fort Jefferson. Breakfast, lunch, and snorkeling gear are included in the price. Round-trip fares are $109 adults, $99 seniors, and $69 children.
Exploring the Dry Tortugas
Of the seven islands that make up the Dry Tortugas, Garden Key is the most visited because it is where Fort Jefferson and the visitor center are located. Loggerhead Key, Middle Key, and East Key are open only during the day and are for hiking. Bush Key is for the birds -- literally! It's a nesting area for birds only, though it is open from October to January for special excursions. Hospital and Long keys are closed to the public.
Fort Jefferson, a huge six-sided, 19th-century fortress, is set almost at the water's edge of Garden Key, so it appears to float in the middle of the sea. The monumental structure is surrounded by formidable 8-foot-thick walls that rise from the sand to a height of nearly 50 feet. Impressive archways, stonework, and parapets make this 150-year-old monument a grand sight. With the invention of the rifled cannon, the fort's masonry construction became obsolete and the building was never completed. For 10 years, however, from 1863 to 1873, Fort Jefferson served as a prison, a kind of "Alcatraz East." Among its prisoners were four of the "Lincoln Conspirators," including Samuel A. Mudd, the doctor who set the broken leg of fugitive assassin John Wilkes Booth. In 1935, Fort Jefferson became a national monument administered by the National Park Service. Today, however, Fort Jefferson is struggling to resist erosion from the salt and sea, as iron used in the gun openings and the shutters in the fort's walls has accelerated the deterioration, and the structure's openings need to be rebricked. As a result, the National Park Service has designated the fort as the recipient of a $15-million face-lift, a project that may take up to a decade to complete.
For more information on Fort Jefferson and the Dry Tortugas, call the Everglades National Park Service (tel. 305/242-7700) or visit www.fortjefferson.com. Fort Jefferson is open during daylight hours. A self-guided tour describes the history of the human presence in the Dry Tortugas while leading visitors through the fort.
Bird-Watching -- Bring your binoculars and your bird books: Bird-watching is the reason to visit this little cluster of tropical islands. The Dry Tortugas, uniquely situated in the middle of the migration flyway between North and South America, serve as an important rest stop for the more than 200 winged varieties that pass through here annually. The season peaks from mid-March to mid-May, when thousands of birds show up, but many species from the West Indies can be found here year-round.
Diving & Snorkeling -- The warm, clear, shallow waters of the Dry Tortugas produce optimum conditions for snorkeling and scuba diving. Four endangered species of sea turtles -- green, leatherback, Atlantic Ridley, and hawksbill -- can be found here, along with myriad marine species. The region just outside the seawall of Fort Jefferson is excellent for underwater touring; an abundant variety of fish, coral, and more live in just 3 to 4 feet of water.
Fishing -- In July 2001, a federal law closed off all fishing in a 90-square-mile tract of open ocean called the Tortugas North and a 61-square-mile tract of open ocean called the Tortugas South. It basically prohibits all fishing in order to preserve the dwindling population of fish (a result of commercial fishing and environmental factors). However, rules have been alleviated and some sport fishing is now allowed in Dry Tortugas. To be safe we recommend a fishing charter such as Dry Tortugas Fishing Adventures (tel. 305/797-6396; www.tortugasfishing.com), which will take you on an impressive 42-foot sport-fishing catamaran into deep water where you'll catch dolphin, tuna, wahoo, king mackerel, sailfish, and an occasional marlin. Trips are overnight and rates are steep: from $3,400 to $3,600 and $1,000 per extra day. If you don't have the money or the time, Captain Andy Griffiths (tel. 305/296-2639; www.fishandy.com) will take you on custom fishing trips out to the Tortugas at $140 per passenger with a minimum of six anglers.
The rustic beauty of tiny Garden Key (the only island of the Dry Tortugas where campers are allowed to pitch tents) is a camper's dream. Don't worry about sharing your site with noisy RVs or motor homes; they can't get here. The abundance of birds doesn't make it quiet, but the camping -- a stone's throw from the water -- is as picturesque as it gets. Picnic tables, cooking grills, and toilets are provided, but there are no showers. All supplies must be packed in and out. Sites are $3 per person per night and are available on a first-come, first-served basis. The 10 sites book up fast. For more information, call the National Park Service (tel. 305/242-7700).