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Cortona was 1 of the 12 cities of the Etruscan confederation, and the proliferation of artifacts discovered in the area led to the founding of an Etruscan Academy in 1727. Their illuminating collections are now housed in the Palazzo Casali, a 13th-century mansion built for the city's governors; the original upper floors evoke the medieval period, while the lower galleries have received a smart, contemporary overhaul. The lower galleries tackle the Etruscan and Roman history of Cortona, with lots of gold from excavated tombs and the enigmatic Cortona Tablet, a 200-word document inscribed in bronze. Archaeologists are still puzzling over the text, with some vocabulary never before encountered before. Some more Etruscan finds are housed on the sprawling upper floors. The most spectacular find is a one of a kind, an oil lamp chandelier from the late 4th century b.c. decorated with human heads, allegorical figures, and a few virile Pans playing their pipes, all surrounding a leering Gorgon's head on the bottom.