315km (195 miles) SE of Amsterdam; 189km (117 miles) SE of Brussels; 122km (76 miles) SE of Liège
Luxembourg-Ville (Lëtzebuerg Stad), the Grand Duchy's diminutive capital (pop. 86,000), is a marvelously contrasting mix of the old and the new. The old part of town runs along a deep valley beneath brooding casemates that have lent themselves readily to defense in times of war, while the more modern part of town crowns steep cliffs overlooking the old. The city is the headquarters of the European Court of Justice and of the European Investment Bank, and is one of the three seats of the European Parliament (along with Brussels and Strasbourg). Despite the many banks and the Euro-office towers, Luxembourg City has retained plenty of small-scale, provincial ambience.