Walking Tour: Historic Catania

Start: Castello Ursino.

Finish: Piazza Università.

Time: 4 1/2 hours, including brief visits inside churches and monuments.

Best Times: Mornings before noon, when the food market is at its busiest.

Worst Times: After dark, when the alleyways of the old town are unsafe.

Begin your tour amid the palms and palmettos of the piazza in front of the massive and forbidding-looking:

1. Castello Ursino

Built on ancient Greek foundations, its towering, austere interior has some of the most impressive stone vaulting in Catania. The inside is devoted to a municipal museum that contains everything from archaeological remnants to 19th-century landscapes and portraits. When the castello (castle) was built in 1239, it directly fronted the sea although, since then, lava flows from Etna have raised the ground level to the point where it now lies some distance inland. Look for patterns of both menorahs and crosses set into the medieval masonry, a hallmark left by the masons.

After your visit, with your back to the castello, walk diagonally to the right, across Piazza Federico de Svevia, heading to a point immediately to the left of the iron fence that fronts the railway tracks. Pass through an alley that funnels into an unnamed triangular piazza, and from there continue onto Via Auteri. At Via Auteri 26, note the 18th-century facade of the privately owned Palazzo Auteri. Said to be haunted, and long ago divided into private apartments (none of which can be visited), it's just one example of the many grand buildings dotting this historic neighborhood.

From Via Auteri, turn right onto Via Zappala Gemelli, site of the beginning of Catania's:

2. Outdoor Fish, Meat, & Produce Market

I can't begin to describe the cornucopia of sights, sounds, and smells in this warren of narrow streets. Pay attention to your footing: Don't slip on the slime from fish guts or rotting vegetables.

Continue downhill, through the souk, to the bulk that rises on the right-hand side of Via Zappala Gemelli, the:

3. Chiesa Santa Maria dell'Indirizzo

Its elegant baroque facade -- punctuated with a garish neon sign declaring VIVA MARIA -- stands above a square (Piazza dell'Indirizzo) that rises above that part of the food market dedicated to meats. This is not a showcase church destined for the art books or tourist trade; it's the parish church of the meat- and fish-market district, with an evocatively battered interior, crumbling stucco, and scads of dusty baroque/rococo ornamentation. Opening hours are erratic, but are usually daily from 8am to noon and 3 to 6pm.

After your visit, walk to the church's southern side (the one on the left as you face it from the teeming meat market outside). Here, separated from the square by an iron fence, lies the ancient Roman ruins of the:

4. Terme dell'Indirizzo

Constructed by the ancient Romans out of black volcanic rock and terra-cotta brick, with only a few of its original vaults and arches still intact, these baths are best admired from outside the fence. Look also for a tiny domed Greek-cross building, constructed of black lava. It's virtually never open except to accommodate qualified archaeologists.

After your visit to the ruined baths, descend along basalt cobblestones in front of the Church of Santa Maria dell'Indirizzo. They lead downhill into the bowels of the rest of the food market. The largest open space in the market -- a mass of parasols, blood, humanity, and grime -- is the Piazza Pardo (also known as the Via Pardo), at the edge of which is the hard-to-see facade of a highly recommended restaurant, Osteria Antica Marina.

With your back to the restaurant, turn left, noting the massive soaring archway, built of dark lava rock, on either side of which the food market teems wildly. It's the:

5. Porta Carlo V

Punctuating the entranceway to the indoor section of the city's food markets, this is one of the few structures of Catania that survived the earthquake of 1693. Pass beneath it and then turn left. After a few steps, you'll emerge into the open air again, into a neoclassical, traffic-free square filled with more food vendors selling, in this case, fish. Your map might identify it as the Piazza A. di Benedetto, but there is no sign. Most of the buildings date from the early 1600s. At the distant edge of this piazza, at the top of a short flight of stone steps, is a small stone obelisk marked FONTANA DELL'AMENANO. Built in 1867, it marks the location of a powerful underground river.

Visible at the bottom of a steep masonry-sided chasm from the obelisk's rear side is the:

6. Fontana dei 10 Canali (Fountain of the 10 Rivers)

For years, this was the only water source in this neighborhood, and many local residents remember when a flood of water from this underground canal was diverted, thanks to conduits and channels, to an aboveground curtain of water used liberally by everyone in the food market. Today, because of urban renovations and difficulties with the plumbing, the waters remain mostly underground.

From here, walk to the top of the previously mentioned stone steps for a view over the:

7. Piazza Duomo

At the edges of this piazza sit several of the monuments that will be visited as part of this walking tour.

Before you start your visits of the monuments, look left (westward) along the wide, upward-sloping vista of the:

8. Via Garibaldi

At the most distant point on the street's faraway horizon, beyond the masses of people and cars, note the decorative triumphal arch that was built to celebrate the marriage, in 1768, of the Spanish king Ferdinand de Bourbon and Princess Carolina of Austria. About a century later, in 1862, it marked the processional route of Garibaldi for his triumphant entrance into Catania during the agonizing process of unifying Italy into a coherent political whole. The event marked Garibaldi's utterance, for the first time, of what eventually became a unifying political slogan, "O Roma, o morte" ("Give me Rome, or give me death").

9. Caffè del Duomo

Caffè del Duomo, Piazza Duomo 12, is the most charming of the cafes flanking the square. Built in the late 1800s, it has a marble counter, hints of the Belle Epoque, and a lavish tavola calda (buffet table of hot platters) adjacent to the bar. You can choose from at least 15 different snack items. The cafe also sells some of the most artful almond candies in Catania, shaped like berries, pears, and apples. For a quick pick-me-up at the bar, do as the locals do and ask for seltzer water doctored with a tantalizing scoop of fruit-flavored granita. The cafe is open daily 5:30am to midnight.

After your refueling stop, walk across Piazza Duomo to the:

10. Palazzo degli Elefanti

This palace is now the Municipio, or town hall, of Catania. If it's open, walk into the building's central courtyard, where you'll see lava-rock foundations; bas-relief wall friezes dedicated to Catania's patron saint (St. Agatha); and a pair of 18th-century ceremonial coaches that are used every February to carry Catania's ecclesiastical and secular dignitaries (including the mayor) down the city thoroughfares for the Festival of St. Agatha. If the security guard allows it, proceed into the second courtyard. Here, note the wall-mounted 19th-century copy of an ancient Greek sundial. Proud Sicilians claim that the ancient Romans learned the art and science of sundials from the Greek colonists of Sicily. Regrettably, the rest of city hall is usually closed to casual visitors.

After your visit, cross the Piazza Duomo and take time to admire:

11. Fontana dell'Elefante

This fountain was created from black lava, and it is Catania's most famous monument. It stands on a Byzantine platform and carries on its back an ancient Egyptian obelisk covered with hieroglyphics. On top of that is an iron ornament that includes, among other symbols, a cross devoted to the patron saint, Agatha.

Piazza Duomo is dominated, naturally, by the:

12. Duomo

Begun by King Roger in 1070 and rebuilt by Caccarini after the earthquake, this cathedral used many ancient monuments of Catania in its construction, including stones from Roman theaters. Pause to admire its lugubrious baroque facade with its granite columns. Norman apses can be viewed from Via Vittorio Emanuele. The church was built over the ruins of a vaulted Roman bath, and inside, a Romanesque basilica lies under the Duomo's nave. The cathedral is a pantheon of some Aragonese royalty.

After you exit from the Duomo, with your back to the entrance, turn immediately left and walk a few steps to a building that functioned for many generations as a seminary for theologians and is now the:

13. Museo Diocesano (Catania Diocese Museum)

Located at Via Etnea 8, this museum gives insight into the lavish traditions associated with one of Sicily's most powerful undercurrents of religious ecstasy, the Cult of St. Agatha. Inside, you'll see photos of modern-day religious processions as well as the massive silver sledge that holds the iconic effigy of St. Agatha, which is hauled through the streets every February as part of the mystical rites associated with this powerful cult.

After your visit, with your back to the entrance of the Diocese Museum, turn left and walk a few paces to the south, passing beneath the massive ceremonial stone portal known as:

14. Porta Uzeda

Originally built by Sicily's Spanish overlords during the early 18th century, this archway contains some interesting shops selling folkloric pottery. On its opposite side is a pleasant and verdant park, Villa Pacini, where you can rest.

Now retrace your steps back into Piazza Duomo, walking diagonally across it toward Via Vittorio Emanuele, which flanks its northern edge. Continue westward. A point of minor interest en route is at Via Vittorio Emanuele 175, immediately adjacent to the Hotel de l'Europe. Here, note the hidden doorway, crafted from wood, whose panels were painstakingly designed to look like a continuation of the stone mullions of the building that contains it.

Continue west along the Via Vittorio Emanuele to Piazza San Francesco, site of three important attractions, each noted below. You'll recognize the square thanks to the contemporary-looking statue devoted to Cardinal Dusmet, a 19th-century benefactor of Catania's poor. The inscription on its base translates as "Because we have bread, we give it to the poor." The three attractions flanking the square include:

15. Museo Emilio Greco

Located at Piazza San Francesco 3, this archive-cum-museum displays the major artistic contributions of Catania citizen Emilio Greco (1913-95). He is most famous for his grand sculpture. For more information,

Accessible via the same entranceway on the western edge of the square is the more interesting:

16. Museo Civico Belliniano

The great Vincenzo Bellini (1801-35) was born in this house, which displays memorabilia and portraits.

Facing both of these museums at the eastern edge of Piazza San Francesco is:

17. Chiesa San Francesco Immacolata

The most interesting objects inside this church are the six massive, richly gilded candelabras (most at least 3.3m/11 ft. high and incredibly heavy), which are proudly displayed in the nave. Carved at the beginning of the 20th century, they're carried on the shoulders of the faithful during the Feast Day of St. Agatha. The largest and heaviest of them was carved in 1913, gilded in 1935, and donated to the church and to St. Agatha by the city's bakers' guild.

After your visit, continue westward along Via Vittorio Emanuele, turning left in 2 short blocks onto Via Santa Anna. On that street, you'll find the small-scale baroque facade of the tiny Chiesa Santa Anna (it's almost always closed to casual visitors) and a few buildings later, on the left, the former home of one of Sicily's most famous writers:

18. Casa di Verga

Known for his naturalistic fiction, Giovanni Verga (1840-1922) became one of Sicily's greatest writers. He was celebrated in his day, making friends with such greats as Emile Zola. Much of Catania turned out for his 80th birthday, where Luigi Pirandello appeared as orator.

Retrace your steps to Via Vittorio Emanuele and turn right, back toward the Piazza San Francesco. En route, along that street's northern edge, see the deceptively modern-looking stone entrance to one of Catania's most cherished archaeological treasures, the:

19. Roman Amphitheater

Draped with ivy, and overlooked by a ring of 17th-century buildings and apartments, this charming theater at Via Vittorio Emanuele 260 is an ancient oasis concealed in the midst of an urban neighborhood. During classical times, it held as many as 17,000 spectators for plays and -- to a lesser extent -- water games, when boats would float on waters funneled in from nearby streams and aqueducts. It was also a site for gladiator contests. Ironically, part of the theater's graceful, crescent-shaped seating structure is blocked by a black-lava bridge added during the early 17th century as the base for the since-demolished Via Grotte, once a densely populated street within this residential neighborhood.

Via Grotte, most of its bridge-like foundations, and all of its buildings were demolished in the 1950s by Catania's historic buildings committee as a means of returning the ancient theater to some semblance of its original purity. Vestiges of the street remain within the circumference of the Roman theater, however, cutting surreally across one edge of the theater's sweeping, crescent-shaped bleachers.

Come with stamina, a good sense of balance, and sturdy walking shoes. Sandals are not recommended because of the steep, uneven steps, which lead visitors through ghostly tunnels that wind their way through and beneath the bleacher stands.

A smaller theater, the Odeon, is accessible near the back side of the Roman theater. To reach it, follow signs from the theater and walk uphill through some tunnels and steep vaulted stairs.

After your visit, return to Piazza San Francesco, stand in front of its mammoth church, and turn uphill to face the lowest end of one of the most richly embellished baroque streets in Catania:

20. Via Crociferi

Above its downhill entrance is a soaring stone bridge, L'Arco San Benedetto, which allowed nuns, many of whom were in seclusion, to access the buildings on either side of this street during the convent's heyday (17th-19th centuries). Via Crociferi is so authentically baroque that it was filmed by Franco Zeffirelli for Storia di una Capinera, his cinematic tale of love during the baroque age.

In order of their appearance on this fabled but relatively short street, you'll see the following churches, convents, or monasteries: (1) San Benedetto, (2) San Francesco Borgia, (3) San Giuliano, and others whose facades aren't marked with name or number.

Three blocks from where you first entered Via Crociferi, turn left onto Via Gesuiti. Walk 4 blocks to reach Piazza Dante and the mammoth, never-completed:

21. Chiesa di San Nicolò All'Arena

The biggest church in Sicily was never completed, and it is almost ringed in scaffolding to keep it from falling down. Immediately adjacent is an abandoned monastery once intended as a library. Surrealistically large, this complex is Catania's symbol of the folly of large-scale projects gone awry.

Retrace your steps to Via Crucifero, turn left and walk about a block, and then turn right (downhill) onto Via San Giuliano. You'll be heading down the steep slope of a dormant volcanic crater associated with the geology of nearby Mount Etna. After 2 blocks, turn right onto Via Etnea and walk 2 blocks. On the right is a church with a baroque concave facade:

22. Collegiata (Santa Maria della Consolazione)

This royal chapel from 1768 is one of the masterpieces of the Catanese late baroque style, based on plans by Angelo Italia. The facade was completed by Stefano Ittar, and the vaults inside were frescoed by Giuseppe Sciuti. It's dearly beloved by many Catanians who attended religious celebrations here during their childhoods.

After your visit, continue another block south along Via Etnea to the:

23. Piazza Università

This elegant urban piazza is often the site of political demonstrations. One side is devoted to the back of the previously visited Municipio (town hall), the other side to the symbolic headquarters of the University of Catania. The university was founded in 1434, but the bulk of it lies in a modern educational complex 3km (2 miles) to the east, in the suburbs. The square was constructed at the request of the duke of Camastra. It's dominated by the Palazzo Sangiuliano, built in 1745, and by the main university building, Palazzo dell'Università, which was finished at the end of the 1700s. One of the richest libraries in Sicily is housed in the Università degli Studi di Catania, founded by Alphonese of Aragon in 1434.

Note: This information was accurate when it was published, but can change without notice. Please be sure to confirm all rates and details directly with the companies in question before planning your trip.