Residence of the sultans, administrative seat of the Ottoman Empire for almost 400 years, and the source of legend on life in the harem, Topkapi Palace should be at the top of the list for anyone interested in the vast and exotic world behind the seraglio walls. It's impossible to rush through the palace, so you should allot at least a half-day and be prepared to encounter a few bottlenecks throughout the enclosed exhibition halls, especially in the Holy Relics Room where the ardent faithful, in their religious fervor, tend to obstruct the display cases. Built by Mehmet the Conqueror over the ruins of Constantine's Imperial Palace, Topkapi Palace occupies one of the seven hills of the city at the tip of the historic peninsula overlooking the sea. Since it is easily the most valuable real estate in the city, it doesn't take a brain surgeon to see why this spot was preferable to the original palace situated on an inland tract where the university stands today. Mehmet II began construction of the palace 9 years after his conquest of the city, where the sultans reigned continually until 1855, when Abdülmecid moved the imperial residence up the Bosphorus to Dolmabahçe Palace.
Entrance to the grounds is through the Bab-i Hümayün Gate at the end of the Babuhümayun Caddesi (also called the Gate of Augustus, for the square outside the gate that in Byzantine times was a busy crossroads called the Forum of Augustus). Serving as the entrance through which the public would access the grounds, the gate would often display the decapitated heads of uncooperative administrators or rebels as a warning to all who entered. Just outside the gate is the Ahmet III Fountain, built by Mehmet Aga in 1729 atop an ancient source of water as a gift to Sultan Ahmet. A poem by the sultan is inscribed in the stone, inviting passersby to "drink the water and pray from the House of Ahmet."
The first courtyard, known as the Court of the Janissaries, is a public park of gardens and trees, just as it was in earlier days. Along the center path are the remains of a 5th-century-A.D. Roman cistern. (You can save this for the way out.)
The diagonal path to the left leads to the stunning Hagia Eirene (St. Irene), the second-largest Byzantine church after Ayasofya, and a church that predates Constantine's conquest of the city. The first temple on the site was dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite until it became the center of Christian activities between A.D. 272 and A.D. 398. During Constantine's pro-Christian reign, the emperor had the church enlarged, and then, following its near destruction in the Nika Revolt (along with that of the Ayasofya), Justinian had it reconstructed. Excavation between 1946 and 1950 indicates that a series of buildings existed connecting the church with the Ayasofya, and the fact that both churches were completed and rededicated at about the same time indicates that these houses of worship were in some way part of an ecclesiastical complex. The buildings were later demolished to make room for construction of the palace walls. Rumor has it that Mehmet the Conqueror's Italian consort convinced him to store the house porcelain there, where she could then secretly go and pray, but for the record, the Ottomans used the church as an arsenal. Hagia Eirene is closed to the public but is used as a venue for concerts and recitals. The church may be opened on special request (tel. 0212/520-6952).
The ticket booths to the palace are located on the right side of the courtyard. Proceed to the Ortakapi (middle gate), known as the Gate of Salutation, roughly translated from the Arabic (Turkish version) Babüsselâm. Added by Süleyman the Magnificent in 1524, this gate signaled to all but the sultan to dismount before proceeding into the palace. On either side of the gate are two octagonal towers that essentially served as death row for those who fell out of favor; after a prisoner's execution, the body would be left outside the gate. To the right of the gate (facing) is a marble fountain where the executioner would wash the blood off his hands before reentering the palace.
Begin your visit with the Palace Kitchens, a complex comprised of a string of lofty chambers topped by a series of chimney-domes, a narrow inner courtyard, and a smaller string of rooms. The largest in the world, the kitchens at one time employed over 1,000 servants working day and night to serve the 5,000 residents of the palace, a number that swelled to 15,000 during Ramadan. At the far end is the original wooden kitchen that survived a 16th-century fire; Sinan, who reconstructed the kitchens, added the massive conical chimneys and enlarged the original space. Suspended from the iron bars in the ceiling were the cauldrons, raised or lowered over the fire pits below according to the desired intensity of the flame. The kitchens are now used to exhibit the palace's rich collection of porcelain numbering close to 12,000 pieces, not all of which are displayed. Topkapi houses the third-most-important collection of porcelain in the world, after Beijing and Dresden, while the palace's collection of celadons surpasses that of Beijing because the Chinese destroyed all of theirs during the Cultural Revolution. Besides these 4th- and 5th-century-A.D. celadons are pieces from the Sung and Yuan dynasties (9th-13th c. A.D.), pieces from the Ming Dynasty (14th-17th c.), and porcelain from the Ching Dynasty (16th-20th c.). Many of these treasures found their way to Istanbul as gifts exchanged between the Ottomans, Chinese, and Persians as symbols of solidarity toward the maintenance and protection of the roads. There's also a rich collection of silver, particularly coffee services, candelabras, and mirrors (ornamented on the backside because of the proscription requiring the reflective side to be lain facedown), and a display of Venetian glass and Bohemian crystal. The Ahmet III Fountain outside the main entrance is reproduced here in a stunning mass of silver, but there are examples of collectibles on a less grandiose scale as well.
Following a direct path along the length of the palace grounds, proceed to the Gate of Felicity (Babüssaade), also known as the Gate of the White Eunuchs. For 400 years, enthronement ceremonies were held at the entrance to this gate, today used as a backdrop for the annual presentation of Mozart's Abduction from the Seraglio during the International Istanbul Music Festival. Decapitated heads found their way above this gate as well. Only the sultan and the grand vizier were allowed past this gate into the third courtyard (while the Valide Sultan used a back gate for entrances and exits), the private quarters of the palace. Immediately inside the Gate of Felicity and acting as a visual barrier to the private quarters beyond is the Throne Room, a pavilion used by the sultan as an audience chamber to receive (or affront) visiting ambassadors. Notice the interlocking marble used in the construction of the arched doorway; this design technique reinforced the archway and protected it against earthquakes.
Directly to the right is the Seferliler Quarters, now housing the Palace Clothing Exhibition or Imperial Wardrobe. Because the sultan's clothing was considered to be holy, a sultan's wardrobe would be wrapped up and preserved in the palace. This opulent display of silk, brocade, and gold-threaded clothing is only a small portion of the whole collection and includes enormously baggy costumes (to give the sultan the visual advantage of size), along with caftans and other garments showing influences from around the empire.
Past the Palace Clothing Exhibition is the Fatih Pavilion, containing a recently restored exhibition of the Treasury, one of the greatest collections of treasures in the world. In 400 years a sultan can amass a great quantity of wealth, supplied through spoils of war, gifts from neighboring kings and queens, and the odd impulse buy. The rooms were off-limits to everyone but the sultan, and in his absence, any visitor was required to be accompanied by at least 40 other men.
Room no. 1 of the Treasury is a collection of Ottoman objects and ceremonial thrones, including one in pure gold, weighing in at 250 kilograms (550 lb.), presented to Murat III in 1585 by the Egyptian governor; an ebony throne crafted for Süleyman the Magnificent; and a jewel-encrusted throne presented to Mahmut I by Nadir Shah of India.
The eye is immediately drawn to the jewel-studded mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell throne of Sultan Ahmet I, crafted by the master of inlay, Mehmet Aga, the same man commissioned by the sultan to build the Blue Mosque. (Rumor has it that during his 1995 visit, Michael Jackson requested permission to sit in one of the thrones; however, his request was denied.) Also of note in room no. 1 is the sword belonging to Süleyman the Magnificent, with his name and title inscribed on the blade.
Room no. 2 of the Treasury displays a collection of medals and non-Ottoman objects and gifts (or plunder) received through the spoils of war. Highlights include figurines crafted in India from seed pearls, and in the same case, a miniature tree of life and a vessel presented as gifts to the tomb of Mohammed.
The focus of room no. 3 is a pair of shoulder-high candlesticks crafted of solid gold, caked with several thousand brilliants/diamonds, and weighing over 48 kilograms (105 lb.) each. In a world absent of electricity, candlesticks like these would be placed on either side of the mihrab to provide light for the reading of the holy book. This pair was presented to the tomb of Mohammed in Medina and brought back to Istanbul after World War I. The rest of the exhibit in room no. 3, an overwhelming collection of jade, rock crystal, zinc, emeralds, and other precious gems, displays Ottoman objects made by artists and craftsmen for the sultans throughout the centuries.
Room no. 4 is the Treasury's pièce de résistance, a breathtaking view into the wealth of the Ottoman Empire. The famous Topkapi Dagger is here, weighted down by a row of emeralds and diamonds in the hilt and on the cover. This dagger was the protagonist in the 1964 film Topkapi (with Peter Ustinov), an amusing film about a plot to rob the Palace Museum. The actual dagger was intended as a gift from Sultan Mahmud I to Nadir Shah to warn him of an impending conspiracy on his life, but was returned by the couriers following a bloody revolution in which the shah was killed.
You'll notice a group of people hovering around a case at the far end of room no. 4, displaying the 86-karat Spoonmaker's Diamond, or Kasikçi Diamond, the fifth-largest diamond in the world, glittering in a setting of 49 smaller diamonds. The diamond was actually discovered in the 17th century in a city dump by a local peddler who sold it to a jeweler for pennies.
The exhibit finishes with a stunning collection of "lesser" diamonds and gems, plus the gold and jewel-encrusted chain mail of Sultan Mustafa III. Also of note is the ceremonial sword, attributed to either Caliph Osman (7th c. A.D.) or Osman Gazi (13th c.) and used in any sultan's inauguration, usually in front of Eyüp Sultan Mosque.
Another piece of note is the golden cradle in which newborn sons were presented to the sultans, as well as an emerald pendant with 48 strings of pearls originally sent by Sultan Abdülhamid I as a gift to the tomb of the Prophet Mohammed in Mecca. The pendant was returned to Istanbul after Mecca was no longer within the borders of the empire.
Exit the courtyard down the stairs to the right through a long passage. To the right and parallel to the sea is the second terrace, affording one of the best views in the city. Imagine the days of seaside attacks on the palace walls as you watch the maritime traffic go by. During Byzantine times, a chain composed of links .8m (2 1/2 ft.) long was forged to span the Golden Horn and prevent enemy ships from accessing the waterway.
This fourth courtyard was the realm of the sultan, and a stroll around the gardens will reveal some lovely examples of Ottoman kiosk architecture. Near the center of the upper level of the courtyard is the Mustafa Pasa Kiosk, the oldest building in the complex, which served as the physician's quarters and as a wardrobe for the sultan needing to effect swift changes during state functions. From the picture window overlooking the gardens, the sultan was known to observe wrestling matches, and even join in every now and again.
Perched on the upper terrace at the northernmost corner of the palace complex is the Baghdad Kiosk, magnificently sited to take best advantage of the views of the Golden Horn. The kiosk is decorated with priceless Iznik tiles, both inside and out. In addition to the tiles, the interior space is embellished with stained glass and crowned by a dome decorated with a traditional Ottoman motif in gold leaf. The kiosk served the sultan in colder weather; occupants of the kiosk were warmed by the central brazier. The Sofa Köskü is the only surviving wooden pavilion in the palace. The golden-roofed Iftariye Pavilion, or "pavilion for breaking the fast," is the covered balcony on the northern edge of the courtyard, also called the Mehtaplik, or "Moon Place."
The circumcision rooms, rarely opened to the public, are also located in the fourth courtyard.
Backtrack through the passage and up the steps into the third courtyard. To the right past the Museum Directorate is the Dormitory of the Pages of the Imperial Treasury, formerly used to display decorative calligraphy from the Koran as well as jeweled Koran sets. At the far corner of the third courtyard is the Holy Relic Section, the largest collection in the world of this type, containing the personal belongings of the Prophet Mohammed, the caliphs, and even the unexpected staff of Moses. Also on display is a piece of St. John the Baptist's skull and a section of his forearm, enclosed within a solid-gold model. The items on display were brought back to Istanbul by Selim the Grim in 1517, following his conquest of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and after declaring himself caliph. Since the Kaa'ba was restored annually, pieces of the mosque were regularly kept as ornamentation for mosques. This collection was off-limits to anyone but the most favored members of the sultan's family and was open to public viewing only in 1962. The domed space is ornamented with Iznik tiles and quotations from the Koran along with a priceless set of rain gutters, an intricately carved door, and an old set of keys taken from the Kaa'ba. Directly opposite the entrance are the four sabers belonging to the first four caliphs, and the first-ever copy of the Koran, documented on deerskin.
To the right is the Mohammed Chamber, fronted by a booth in which an imam (religious guide) has been reciting passages from the Koran continually for the past 500 years. This tradition was started by Mehmet II and sets the stage for the collection of holy relics within. The golden cloth that once covered the black stone in the central courtyard of the Kaa'ba in Mecca now hangs in this exhibit, as a new one is richly prepared each year. The display cases here are almost always hidden behind fervent religious visitors communing with the spirit of the prophet through relics of his hair, a tooth, his footprints, and even soil from his grave. The Holy Mantle, the most sacred item in the collection, is contained in a gold coffer and sequestered behind a grilled door.
Turkish and Iranian miniatures as well as portraits of Ottoman sultans are exhibited in the rooms next to the one containing the Holy Relics. While the original collection amounts to a total of 13,000 specimens, this exhibit comes nowhere near this number. The main draw is the collection of portraits (both copies and originals) modeled after those painted by some of the Renaissance's most celebrated artists (Veronese, Bellini). Lacking any record of the physiological characteristics of the first 12 sultans, the Ottomans had the ones painted by the Venetians brought back to Istanbul in 1579.
In the center of the courtyard is the Ahmet III Library, constructed in the 16th century of white marble and recently restored and opened to the public. The bookcases are inlaid with ivory and contain about 6,000 volumes of Arab and Greek manuscripts. The stained glass is from the early 17th century; the platform divan seating is typically Ottoman, and the carpets are over 500 years old.
Return to the second courtyard, where along the right side you will come upon the Imperial Armory, a collection of arms and objects acquired during the various military campaigns. Mehmet the Conqueror's sword is here, as is Süleyman the Magnificent's, but it's the unattributed 2.5m (8-ft.) one that really impresses.
Before entering the Harem, take a peek into the Imperial Council Hall, or Divan, constructed during the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent. State affairs were conducted here while the sultan eavesdropped from the grate above, which leads directly to the Harem. From this concealed position, the sultan could interrupt proceedings with a motion to his grand vizier and call for a private conference whenever the need arose. His wife, Roxelana, would often secretly attend these sessions, a privilege that ended in several unfortunate fatalities.
The Harem has three main sections: the outer quarters of the Black Eunuchs charged with guarding the Harem; the inner stone courtyard for the concubines; and the apartments facing the sea reserved for the sultan, his mother, favorite concubines, and future heirs to the throne. The tour begins at the Carriage Gate, where the sultan's mother and wives would be whisked away unseen by outsiders during exits and entrances. Past the first Guard Room is a long courtyard lined with cells that served as the Barracks of the Black Eunuchs. The upper levels were reserved for the younger eunuchs, with the lower cells housing the older ones. Winding through the maze of additions, the tour comes to the quarters of the concubines, unheated and often unsanitary rooms around a claustrophobic stone courtyard. The only way out was to be one of the very lucky few chosen by the mother for the sultan; the others were servants to the sultan, or to the girls higher up on the hierarchy. At its most crowded, the Harem housed over 800 concubines. Even if the sultan rotated every night, the numbers were against those girls, and although some were given to the harems of state officials or grand viziers, many died virgins (but who knows what really went on in there . . .).
In contrast, the Apartment of the Valide Sultan, the sultan's mother's room, sandwiched between the girls' quarters and the sultan's, is a domed wonder of mother-of-pearl, ivory, tortoiseshell, gold leaf, porcelain tiles, and frosted glass. The apartment consisted of a bedroom, a dining room, a chamber for prayer, and an office around a courtyard.
The sultan's private bath , furnished with the usual hamam gear but infinitely more lush, has a guarded mesh gate so that the sultan could relax without the fear of being disturbed or assassinated. The sultan's apartments are close by, and the visit continues with the Imperial Reception Hall, where celebrations or evenings of entertainment took place while musicians played discreetly from the mezzanine. While the sultan presided from his throne, the women adhered to a strict hierarchy, with the most important women seated at the center of the platform.
One of the few rooms preserving the luster of its creator is the grand domed Private Chambers of Murat III, built by Sinan in 1578. The walls are covered with a classic blue Iznik tile with red highlights, a prototype that was never duplicated. A frieze of calligraphy runs the perimeter of the room, and elegant panels of flowers and plums surround a bronze fireplace. The room is also called the Fountain Room because of the marble fountain that was kept running to mask conversations not intended for prying ears.
The Reading Room used by Ahmet I is a small but well-positioned library that affords distracting views of the convergence of the three waterways: the Golden Horn, the Marmara Sea, and the Bosphorus.
The Fruit Room is more of a breakfast nook added by Sultan Ahmet III to his private chambers. One look and it's not hard to figure out how this room got its name. The room is enveloped in fruit and floral overkill, but evidently the sultan's attentions were focused on the Harem pool out the window.
The next stop on the Harem tour is at the twin apartments of the crown prince, better known as the Cage . In the early years of the empire, a crown prince was well prepared to fulfill his destiny as a leader, beginning his studies in these rooms and later moving on to actual field experience in one of the provinces. When the practice of fratricide was abandoned, brothers of the sultan were sequestered in these rooms, where they either went crazy or languished in the lap of luxury -- or both. The opulence of the stained glass, tile work, and mother-of-pearl inlaid cabinets belies the chambers' primary function as a jail cell, which supports a recent discovery that the actual cage was located in another part of the Harem. The tour guides continue to perpetuate the myth by billing these two rooms as the bona fide cage.
The Harem tour comes to an end at the Courtyard of the Favorites, surrounded by a charming building recalling the medieval residences of Florence. The apartments on the upper floors were reserved for the members of the Harem the sultan liked best, enjoying open space and sea views as far as the Princes' Islands. The circular spot in the center of the courtyard was covered with a tent for shaded outings, and the grooves served as water channels for cooling.
The exit to the second courtyard is through the Golden Road, a narrow stone corridor that was the crown prince's first taste of the world beyond the stifling confines of the Harem.
Don't Wait to Get into the Harem -- To visit the Harem you must purchase a ticket for one of the tours near the Carriage Gate entrance next to the Divan; your tour time will be indicated on your ticket. Tours depart on the half-hour and last about 30 minutes. Buy your ticket to the Harem at the beginning of your visit to the palace because when the tour buses arrive, the wait on both the ticket and entry lines can be very long. Of the 400 rooms, only around 20 are on the tour, with explanations that are not always audible or, for that matter, intelligible. Nonetheless, the tour is worth taking.
Topkapi Palace Lunch Break -- After touring the Treasury, you've reached the halfway point and a good place to stop for lunch or drinks. The expansive Konyali restaurant (tel. 0212/513-9696) includes indoor and outdoor dining rooms, as well as an outdoor cafeteria-style snack bar.